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WHITES, YELLOWS and MIMIC SULPHURS compared
- the butterfly tool to identify 26 Pieridae

  White and yellow butterflies at a glance! The typical characteristics are described with the help of pictures. Short outdoor videos make identification easier.
The species that are most likely to be encountered in Austria, Central Europe, are described in darker letters. The eastern and southern parts of Austria are warmer than the western, where you find mountains up to ~3800m (12500 feet) called Alps.
 
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  Name and specifics Description underside Description upperside Underside Upperside    
 

LARGE WHITE

(Pieris brassicae) -

MALE

(video)
Underside forewing white (1) with two -sometimes pale- dots (2), hindwing whitish-yellow and diffusely sprayed (3).
Upperside white, forewing without dot (4). The dark triangle at the wing tip is shorter at the costa (5) than at the outer margin (6).
Flies approx. May-Oct. throughout Austria up to ~2600m (8500ft).
GROSSER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris brassicae) GROSSER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris brassicae) GROSSER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris brassicae) GROSSER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris brassicae)    
 

LARGE WHITE

(Pieris brassicae)-

FEMALE

(video)
Underside forewing white (1) with two -sometimes pale- dots (2), hindwing whitish-yellow and diffusely sprayed (3).
Upperside white, forewing with two dots (4). The dark triangle at the wing tip is shorter at the costa (5) than at the outer margin (6). The vein of the front dot (7) crosses this dark triangle.
GROSSER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris brassicae) GROSSER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris brassicae) GROSSER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris brassicae) GROSSER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris brassicae)    
 

SMALL WHITE

(Pieris rapae) -

MALE

(video)
Underside forewing white (1) with two - sometimes pale - dots (2), hindwing whitish-yellow and diffusely sprayed (3).
Upperside forewing with one - sometimes pale - rounded dot (4). The dark triangle at the wing tip is longer at the costa (5) than at the outer margin (6). The vein of the front dot (7) does not reach this dark triangle.
Flies approx. Mar.-Nov. throughout Austria up to ~2400m (7900ft).
KLEINER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris rapae) KLEINER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris rapae) KLEINER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris rapae) KLEINER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris rapae)    
 

SMALL WHITE

(Pieris rapae) -

FEMALE

(video)
Underside forewing white (1) with two dots (2), hindwing whitish-yellow and diffusely sprayed (3).
Upperside forewing with two rounded dots (4). The dark triangle at the wing tip is longer at the costa (5) than at the outer margin (6). The vein of the front dot (7) does not reach this dark triangle.
Flies approx. Mar.-Nov. throughout Austria up to ~2400m (7900ft).
KLEINER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris rapae) KLEINER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris rapae) KLEINER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris rapae) KLEINER KOHLWEISSLING (Pieris rapae)    
 

SOUTHERN SMALL WHITE

(Pieris mannii) -

MALE

(video)
Underside forewing white (1) white with one ore two - sometimes pale - dots (2), hindwing whitish-yellow and diffusely sprayed (3).
Upperside white, forewing with a concave or angular dot (4). The dark triangle at the wing tip seems at the costa (5) longer than at the outer margin (6), but continues diffusely until the vein of the front dot (7). The first generation is paler.
Flies approx. Apr.-Oct.
KARSTWEISSLING (Pieris mannii) KARSTWEISSLING (Pieris mannii) KARSTWEISSLING (Pieris mannii) KARSTWEISSLING (Pieris mannii)    
 

SOUTHERN SMALL WHITE

(Pieris mannii) -

FEMALE

(video)
Underside forewing white (1) with two - sometimes pale - dots (2), hindwing whitish-yellow and diffusely sprayed (3).
Upperside white, forewing with two concave or angular dots (4). The dark triangle at the wing tip seems at the costa (5) longer than at the outer margin (6), but continues diffusely and connects with the front dot (7). The first generation is paler (video).
Flies approx. Apr.-Oct. in dry, karstic places in Austria up to ~1600m (5200ft).
KARSTWEISSLING (Pieris mannii) KARSTWEISSLING (Pieris mannii) KARSTWEISSLING (Pieris mannii) KARSTWEISSLING (Pieris mannii)    
 

MOUNTAIN SMALL WHITE

(Pieris ergane) -

MALE

*
Underside forewing white (1) without dots (2), hindwing whitish-yellow and diffusely sprayed (3).
Upperside white, forewing with a pale dot near the margin (4) and a square, dark spot (5) at the wing tip.
Flies approx. May-Aug. in dry, rocky places possibly in warm eastern and southern Austria most likely over ~500m to 1700m (1600-5600ft).
PIERIS ERGANE (Pieris ergane) PIERIS ERGANE (Pieris ergane) PIERIS ERGANE (Pieris ergane) PIERIS ERGANE (Pieris ergane)    
 

MOUNTAIN SMALL WHITE

(Pieris ergane) -

FEMALE

*
Underside forewing white (1) without dots (2), hindwing whitish-yellow and diffusely sprayed (3).
Upperside white, forewing with two diffus dots near the margin (4) and a square, dark spot (5) at the wing tip.
Flies approx. May-Aug. in dry, rocky places possibly in warm eastern and southern Austria most likely over ~500m to 1700m (1600-5600ft).
PIERIS ERGANE (Pieris ergane) PIERIS ERGANE (Pieris ergane) PIERIS ERGANE (Pieris ergane) PIERIS ERGANE (Pieris ergane)    
 

MIMIC SULPHURS

-

MALE

(video)
Clearly rounded wing tip (a), underside forewing white (1) without dot (2), hindwing whitish-yellow and densely sprayed (3).
Upperside white, forewing without dot (4), with a square spot on the wing tip (5).
Four similar species could be seen in Austria:
WOOD WHITE (Leptidea sinapis) flies approx. May-Aug. throughout Austria rather below ~1900m (6200ft),
CRYPTIC WOOD WHITE (Leptidea juvernica) flies approx. May-Aug. throughout Austria ~100-2000m (300-6600ft),
FENTON'S WOOD WHITE (Leptidea morsei) flies approx. Apr.-Jul. in eastern and southern Austria ~250-1400m (800-4600ft),
REAL'S WOOD WHITE (Leptidea reali) flies approx. May-Aug. in SW-Europe and possibly in Austria ~100-2000m (300-6600ft).
Tintenfleck-Weißling (sinapis,juvernica,morsei,reali) Tintenfleck-Weißling (sinapis,juvernica,morsei,reali) Tintenfleck-Weißling (sinapis,juvernica,morsei,reali) Tintenfleck-Weißling (sinapis,juvernica,morsei,reali)    
 

MIMIC SULPHURS

-

FEMALE

(video)
Clearly rounded wing tip (a), underside forewing white (1) without dot (2), hindwing whitish-yellow and sprayed (3).
Upperside white, forewing without dot (4), with a square spot on the wing tip (5).
Four similar species could be seen in Austria:
WOOD WHITE (Leptidea sinapis) flies approx. May-Aug. throughout Austria rather below ~1900m (6200ft),
CRYPTIC WOOD WHITE (Leptidea juvernica) flies approx. May-Aug. throughout Austria ~100-2000m (300-6600ft),
FENTON'S WOOD WHITE (Leptidea morsei) flies approx. Apr.-Jul. in eastern and southern Austria ~250-1400m (800-4600ft),
REAL'S WOOD WHITE (Leptidea reali) flies approx. May-Aug. in SW-Europe and possibly in Austria ~100-2000m (300-6600ft).
Tintenfleck-Weißling (sinapis,juvernica,morsei,reali) Tintenfleck-Weißling (sinapis,juvernica,morsei,reali) Tintenfleck-Weißling (sinapis,juvernica,morsei,reali) Tintenfleck-Weißling (sinapis,juvernica,morsei,reali)    
 

GREEN-VEINED WHITE

(Pieris napi) -

MALE

(video)
Underside forewing white (1) with or without dot (2), hindwing whitish-yellow and closed to the veins sprayed (3).
Upperside white, forewing without or with one or two dots (4).
Flies approx. Mar.-Oct. throughout Austria up to ~2000m (6600ft).
GRÜNADRIGER WEISSLING, RAPSWEISSLING (Pieris napi) GRÜNADRIGER WEISSLING, RAPSWEISSLING (Pieris napi) GRÜNADRIGER WEISSLING, RAPSWEISSLING (Pieris napi) GRÜNADRIGER WEISSLING, RAPSWEISSLING (Pieris napi)    
 

GREEN-VEINED WHITE

(Pieris napi) -

FEMALE

(video)
Underside forewing white (1) with one or two dots (2), hindwing whitish-yellow and closed to the veins sprayed (3).
Upperside white, forewing with two distinct dots (4).
Flies approx. Mar.-Oct. throughout Austria up to ~2000m (6600ft).
GRÜNADRIGER WEISSLING, RAPSWEISSLING (Pieris napi) GRÜNADRIGER WEISSLING, RAPSWEISSLING (Pieris napi) GRÜNADRIGER WEISSLING, RAPSWEISSLING (Pieris napi) GRÜNADRIGER WEISSLING, RAPSWEISSLING (Pieris napi)    
 

MOUNTAIN GREEN-VEINED WHITE

(Pieris bryoniae) -

MALE

(video)
Underside forewing white (1) with or without dot (2), hindwing whitish-yellowand closed to the veins sprayed dark (3).
Upperside white, forewing with or without dots (4); The spray runs along the veins to the outer margin, where it forms small triangles (5).
Flies approx. May-Sep. in the Alps and Pre-Alps at ~300-2400m (1000-7900ft).
BERG-WEISSLING (Pieris bryoniae) BERG-WEISSLING (Pieris bryoniae) BERG-WEISSLING (Pieris bryoniae) BERG-WEISSLING (Pieris bryoniae)    
 

MOUNTAIN GREEN-VEINED WHITE

(Pieris bryoniae) -

FEMALE

(video)
Underside forewing white (1) with or without dots (2), hindwing whitish-yellow and closed to the veins sprayed dark (3).
Upperside white with very dark sprayed veins, forewing with two diffus, dark spots (4) and a characteristic dark line (5), which leads from the inner spot to the margin.
Flies approx. May-Sep. in the Alps and Pre-Alps at ~300-2400m (1000-7900ft).
BERG-WEISSLING (Pieris bryoniae) BERG-WEISSLING (Pieris bryoniae) BERG-WEISSLING (Pieris bryoniae) BERG-WEISSLING (Pieris bryoniae)    
 

PEAK WHITE

(Pontia callidice) -

MALE

*
Underside forewing white (1) with conspicuous spot (2), hindwing with arrow-shaped white spots in a continuous green pattern (3).
Upperside white, forewing with gray markings (4) and spot (5).
Flies approx. Jun.-Aug. on flowery slopes in the high mountains of Austria at ~1500-3400m (4900-11200ft).
ALPENWEISSLING (Pontia callidice) ALPENWEISSLING (Pontia callidice) ALPENWEISSLING (Pontia callidice) ALPENWEISSLING (Pontia callidice)    
 

PEAK WHITE

(Pontia callidice) -

FEMALE

*
Underside forewing white (1) with conspicuous spot (2), hindwing with arrow-shaped white spots in a continuous green pattern (3).
Upperside white, especially on the forewing a strong pattern (4) and spot (5).
Flies approx. Jun.-Aug. on flowery slopes in the high mountains of Austria at ~1500-3400m (4900-11200ft).
ALPENWEISSLING (Pontia callidice) ALPENWEISSLING (Pontia callidice) ALPENWEISSLING (Pontia callidice) ALPENWEISSLING (Pontia callidice)    
 

BLACK-VEINED WHITE

(Aporia crataegi) -

MALE


Underside white with black vein-grid (1) without spots, forewing costa black/white (2),
Upperside white with black vein-grid (3) without spots.
Flies approx. Jun.-Jul. throughout Austria up to ~1800m (5900ft).
BAUMWEISSLING (Aporia crataegi) BAUMWEISSLING (Aporia crataegi) BAUMWEISSLING (Aporia crataegi) BAUMWEISSLING (Aporia crataegi)    
 

BLACK-VEINED WHITE

(Aporia crataegi) -

FEMALE

(video)
Underside whitish with brown-black vein-grid (1) without spots, forewing costa brownish (2),
Upperside whitish with black vein-grid (3) without spots.
Flies approx. Jun.-Jul. throughout Austria up to ~1800m (5900ft).
BAUMWEISSLING (Aporia crataegi) BAUMWEISSLING (Aporia crataegi) BAUMWEISSLING (Aporia crataegi) BAUMWEISSLING (Aporia crataegi)    
 

ORANGE TIP

(Anthocharis cardamines) -

MALE

(video)
Underside forewing distinctive by bright orange wing tip (1), hindwing white with speckled green pattern (2).
Upperside white with orange wing tip (3).
Flies approx. Mar.-Jun. throughout Austria up to ~2100m (6900ft).
AURORAFALTER (Anthocharis cardamines) AURORAFALTER (Anthocharis cardamines)
AURORAFALTER (Anthocharis cardamines) AURORAFALTER (Anthocharis cardamines)
   
 

ORANGE TIP

(Anthocharis cardamines) -

FEMALE

(video)
Clearly rounded wing tips (1),
underside hindwing white with speckled green pattern (2).
Upperside white with dark, rounded wing tip (3).
Flies approx. Mar.-Jun. throughout Austria up to ~2100m (6900ft).
AURORAFALTER (Anthocharis cardamines) AURORAFALTER (Anthocharis cardamines) AURORAFALTER (Anthocharis cardamines) AURORAFALTER (Anthocharis cardamines)    
 

EASTERN BATH WHITE

(Pontia edusa) -

MALE

(video)
Underside hindwing white with a flat green pattern, in the middle a white, round dot (1) and keyhole-shaped white marginal spots (2).
Upperside forewing white with strong dark markings (3), hindwing white (4).
Flies approx. Mar.-Oct. in dry, warm areas of Austria below ~1500m (4900ft).
ÖSTLICHER RESEDA-WEISSLING (Pontia edusa) ÖSTLICHER RESEDA-WEISSLING (Pontia edusa) ÖSTLICHER RESEDA-WEISSLING (Pontia edusa) ÖSTLICHER RESEDA-WEISSLING (Pontia edusa)    
 

EASTERN BATH WHITE

(Pontia edusa) -

FEMALE

(video)
Underside hindwing white with a flat green pattern, in the middle a white, round dot (1) and keyhole-shaped white marginal spots (2).
Upperside white with strong dark markings on the forewing (3) and also on the hindwing (4).
Flies approx. Mar.-Oct. in dry, warm areas of Austria below ~1500m (4900ft).
ÖSTLICHER RESEDA-WEISSLING (Pontia edusa) ÖSTLICHER RESEDA-WEISSLING (Pontia edusa) ÖSTLICHER RESEDA-WEISSLING (Pontia edusa) ÖSTLICHER RESEDA-WEISSLING (Pontia edusa)    
 

"DAPPLED WHITES "

- MALE

*
Underside forewing costa chequered (1), hindwing white with a flat green pattern and cup-shaped, white marginal spots (2), costa angled (3),
Upperside white, forewing with pale dark markings (4), hindwing white (5).
Three similar species could fly on the edge of Austria:
EASTERN DAPPLED WHITE (Euchloe ausonia) approx. Mar.-Jun. at the southeast edge up to ~2000m (6600ft),
WESTERN DAPPLED WHITE (Euchloe crameri) approx. Mar.-Jun. at the southern edge up to ~2000m (6600ft),
MOUNTAIN DAPPLED WHITE (Euchloe simplonia) approx. Apr.-Aug. on the western edge mostly above ~1500m (4900ft).
ausonia male
ausonia male ausonia male ausonia male    
 

"DAPPLED WHITES" - FEMALE *


Underside forewing costa chequered (1), hindwing white with a flat green pattern and cup-shaped, white marginal spots (2), costa angled (3),
Upperside white, forewing with dark markings (4), hindwing whitish-yellow (5).
Three similar species could fly on the edge of Austria:
EASTERN DAPPLED WHITE (Euchloe ausonia) approx. Mar.-Jun. at the southeast edge up to ~2000m (6600ft),
WESTERN DAPPLED WHITE (Euchloe crameri) approx. Mar.-Jun. at the southern edge up to ~2000m (6600ft),
MOUNTAIN DAPPLED WHITE (Euchloe simplonia) approx. Apr.-Aug. on the western edge mostly above ~1500m (4900ft).
ausonia Beschreibung ausonia Beschreibung Oberseite ausonia Unterseite ausonia Oberseite    
 

BRIMSTONE

(Gonepteryx rhamni)

- MALE

(video)
Underside lemon yellow (1), pointed wings (2) (3).
Upperside lemon yellow (4).
Flies as an overwinterer from Jan.- Oct. at the edge of the forest throughout Austria up to ~2500m (8200ft).
ZITRONENFALTER (Gonepteryx rhamni)
ZITRONENFALTER (Gonepteryx rhamni) ZITRONENFALTER (Gonepteryx rhamni) ZITRONENFALTER (Gonepteryx rhamni)    
 

BRIMSTONE

(Gonepteryx rhamni)

- FEMALE

(video)
Underside whiteish-greenish (1), pointed wings (2) (3).
Upperside whitish (4).
Flies as an overwinterer from Jan.- Oct. at the edge of the forest throughout Austria up to ~2500m (8200ft).
ZITRONENFALTER (Gonepteryx rhamni) ZITRONENFALTER (Gonepteryx rhamni) ZITRONENFALTER (Gonepteryx rhamni) ZITRONENFALTER (Gonepteryx rhamni)    
 

"CLOVER YELLOWS

" -

MALE

(video)
Underside lemon yellow (1).
Upperside lemon yellow with dark border and light spots (2).
Two similar species fly in Austria:
PALE CLOUDED YELLOW (Colias hyale) approx. Apr.-Oct. on clover meadows and dry grassy areas throughout Austria ~up to 1800m (5900ft), and
BERGER'S CLOUDED YELLOW (Colias alfacariensis) approx. Apr.-Oct. only on dry grassy areas throughout Austria up to ~2100m (6900ft).
KLEE-GELBLING (hyale, alfacariensis) KLEE-GELBLING (hyale, alfacariensis) KLEE-GELBLING (hyale, alfacariensis) KLEE-GELBLING (hyale, alfacariensis)    
 

"CLOVER YELLOWS

" -

FEMALE

(video)
Underside forewing whitish (1), hindwing lemon yellow (2),
Upperside whitish with dark border and light spots (3).
Two similar species fly in Austria:
PALE CLOUDED YELLOW (Colias hyale) approx. Apr.-Oct. on clover meadows and dry grassy areas throughout Austria ~up to 1800m (5900ft), and
BERGER'S CLOUDED YELLOW (Colias alfacariensis) approx. Apr.-Oct. only on dry grassy areas throughout Austria up to ~2100m (6900ft).
KLEE-GELBLING (hyale, alfacariensis) KLEE-GELBLING (hyale, alfacariensis) KLEE-GELBLING (hyale, alfacariensis) KLEE-GELBLING (hyale, alfacariensis)    
 

EASTERN PALE CLOUDED YELLOW

(Colias erate) -

MALE *


Underside forewing and hindwing lemon yellow (1).
Upperside lemon yellow (2) or sometimes orange-yellow with dark border (3), in the 1st generation also with light spots, on the hindwing a broad, dark border (4).
Flies approx. Mar.-Oct. in warm river valleys of eastern Austria approx. up to ~1700m (5600ft).
STEPPEN-GELBLING (Colias erate) STEPPEN-GELBLING (Colias erate) STEPPEN-GELBLING (Colias erate) STEPPEN-GELBLING (Colias erate)    
 

EASTERN PALE CLOUDED YELLOW

(Colias erate) -

FEMALE *


Underside forewing mostly white (1) or sometimes lemon yellow, hindwing yellow (2).
Upperside white (3) or sometimes lemon yellow with dark border and light spots (4).
Flies approx. Mar.-Oct. in warm river valleys of eastern Austria approx. up to ~1700m (5600ft).
STEPPEN-GELBLING (Colias erate) STEPPEN-GELBLING (Colias erate) STEPPEN-GELBLING (Colias erate) STEPPEN-GELBLING (Colias erate)    
 

MOUNTAIN CLOUDED YELLOW

(Colias phicomone) -

MALE

*
Underside forewing white (1), hindwing lemon yellow, heavily sprayed (2) with dark border (3).
Upperside yellowish, heavily sprayed with dark border with light spots (4).
Flies approx. May-Aug. in the Alps at ~900-2500m (3000-8200ft).
ALPEN-GELBLING (Colias phicomone) ALPEN-GELBLING (Colias phicomone) ALPEN-GELBLING (Colias phicomone) ALPEN-GELBLING (Colias phicomone)    
 

MOUNTAIN CLOUDED YELLOW

(Colias phicomone) -

FEMALE


Underside forewing white (1), hindwing lemon yellow, heavily sprayed (2) with light border (3).
Upperside white, heavily sprayed with dark border with light spots (4).
Flies approx. May-Aug. in the Alps at ~900-2500m (3000-8200ft).
ALPEN-GELBLING (Colias phicomone) ALPEN-GELBLING (Colias phicomone) ALPEN-GELBLING (Colias phicomone) ALPEN-GELBLING (Colias phicomone)    
 

MOORLAND CLOUDED YELLOW

(Colias palaeno) -

MALE

*
Underside forewing yellow with a small brighly filled spot (1), hindwing yellow, heavily sprayed (2), without light border (3), with a barely framed, single, white dot (4).
Upperside lemon yellow with a broad dark border without light spots (5).
Flies approx. Jun.-Aug. near moors with bog bilberries or blueberries (Vaccinium) at ~100-2500m (300-8200ft).
HOCHMOOR-GELBLING (Colias palaeno) HOCHMOOR-GELBLING (Colias palaeno) HOCHMOOR-GELBLING (Colias palaeno) HOCHMOOR-GELBLING (Colias palaeno)    
 

MOORLAND CLOUDED YELLOW

(Colias palaeno) -

FEMALE *


Underside forewing white with a small brighly filled spot (1), hindwing lemon yellow, heavily sprayed (2), without light border (3), with a barely framed, single, white dot (4).
Upperside whitish with a broad dark border without light spots (5).
Flies approx. Jun.-Aug. near moors with bog bilberries or blueberries (Vaccinium) at ~100-2500m (300-8200ft).
HOCHMOOR-GELBLING (Colias palaeno) HOCHMOOR-GELBLING (Colias palaeno) HOCHMOOR-GELBLING (Colias palaeno) HOCHMOOR-GELBLING (Colias palaeno)    
 

CLOUDED YELLOW

(Colias croceus) -

MALE

(video)
Underside forewing orange yellow (1), hindwing yellow (2).
Upperside orange yellow (3) with a dark border traversed by pale veins (4) and a broad border at the hindwing (5).
Flies approx. May-Nov. in warm areas throughout Austria up to ~1600m (5200ft).

POSTILLON (Colias crocea) POSTILLON (Colias crocea) POSTILLON (Colias crocea) POSTILLON (Colias crocea)    
 

CLOUDED YELLOW

(Colias croceus) -

FEMALE

(video Eiablage)
Underside forewing orange yellow (1), hindwing yellow (2).
Upperside orange yellow (3) with a dark border and light spots (4); Instead of the orange-yellow upperside, there is also a whitish form "f. helice" in about 10%.
Flies approx. May-Nov. in warm areas throughout Austria up to ~1600m (5200ft).
POSTILLON (Colias crocea) POSTILLON (Colias crocea) POSTILLON (Colias crocea) POSTILLON (Colias crocea)    
 

LESSER CLOUDED YELLOW

(Colias chrysotheme) -

MALE

*
Underside forewing yolk yellow (1) with strong, dark spots (2), hindwing yellow (3).
Upperside yolk yellow (4) with a dark border traversed by pale veins (4).
Flies approx. Apr.-Oct. in steppy eastern Austria at ~200-1000m (660-3300ft).
ORANGEGRÜNER GELBLING (Colias chrysotheme) ORANGEGRÜNER GELBLING (Colias chrysotheme) ORANGEGRÜNER GELBLING (Colias chrysotheme) ORANGEGRÜNER GELBLING (Colias chrysotheme)    
 

LESSER CLOUDED YELLOW

(Colias chrysotheme) -

FEMALE

*
Underside forewing orange yellow (1), pointed wing tip (2), hindwing yellow (3).
Upperside orange (4) with dark border with lemon yellow marginal spots (5), forewing costa sprayed grey-green (6).
Flies approx. Apr.-Oct. in steppy eastern Austria at ~200-1000m (660-3300ft).
ORANGEGRÜNER GELBLING (Colias chrysotheme) ORANGEGRÜNER GELBLING (Colias chrysotheme) ORANGEGRÜNER GELBLING (Colias chrysotheme) ORANGEGRÜNER GELBLING (Colias chrysotheme)    
 

DANUBE CLOUDED YELLOW

(Colias myrmidone) -

MALE

*
Underside forewing orange (1) and reduced dark spots (2), hindwing yellow (3).
Upperside bright orange with a dark border not crossed by light veins (4), hindwing with small border (5).
Flies approx. May-Sep. in warm steppe near a forest in northern and eastern Austria at ~100-500m (300-1600ft).
ORANGEROTER HEUFALTER (Colias myrmidone) ORANGEROTER HEUFALTER (Colias myrmidone) ORANGEROTER HEUFALTER (Colias myrmidone) ORANGEROTER HEUFALTER (Colias myrmidone)    
 

DANUBE CLOUDED YELLOW

(Colias myrmidone) -

FEMALE

*
Underside forewing orange (1) and reduced dark spots (2), hindwing yellow (3).
Upperside bright orange with a dark borderwith yellow marginal spots (4), which are big on the hindwing (5). Instead of the orange upperside there is also a whitish form "f. alba".
Flies approx. May-Sep. in warm steppe near a forest in northern and eastern Austria at ~100-500m (300-1600ft).
ORANGEROTER HEUFALTER (Colias myrmidone) ORANGEROTER HEUFALTER (Colias myrmidone) ORANGEROTER HEUFALTER (Colias myrmidone) ORANGEROTER HEUFALTER (Colias myrmidone)    
 




NO WHITES and NO YELLOWS



despite their color are for example:
Schwarzer Apollo (Parnassius mnemosyne)
CLOUDED APOLLO (Parnassius mnemosyne (Linnaeus, 1758)) with vein-grid and two dark dots; belongs to the Papilionidae.
Hartheuspanner (Siona lineata)
BLACK VEINED MOTH (Siona lineata (Scopoli, 1763)), is a moth and belongs to the Geometridae.
Schachbrettfalter (Melanargia galathea)
MARBLED WHITE (Melanargia galathea (Linnaeus, 1758))
grey-black chequered pattern (1), fringes strongly chequered (2), upperside (3), belongs to the Satyrinae.
galathea female
MARBLED WHITE (Melanargia galathea (Linnaeus, 1758))
grey-black chequered pattern (1), fringes strongly chequered (2), upperside (3), belongs to the Satyrinae.
   
    Segelfalter (Iphiclides podalirius)
SCARCE SWALLOWTAIL (Iphiclides podalirius (Linnaeus, 1758)), with orange dots, belongs to the Papilionidae.
Roter Apollo (Parnassius apollo)
APOLLO (Parnassius apollo (Linnaeus, 1758)) and SMALL APOLLO (Parnassius sacerdos (Stichel, 1906)) with red dots; belong to the Papilionidae.
Schwalbenschwanz (Papilio machaon)
SWALLOW TAIL (Papilio machaon (Linnaeus, 1758)), with red dots, belongs to the Papilionidae..
Osterluzei-Falter (Zerynthia polyxena)
SOUTHERN FESTOON (Zerynthia polyxena (Denis und Schiffermüller, 1775)), with red dots, belongs to the Papilionidae.
   
               
  The family of the pierid butterflies (Pieridae (Duponchel, 1835)) is divided in the subfamilies whites (Pierinae (Swainson, 1820)), mimic sulphurs (Dismorphiinae (Schatz, 1887)) and sulphurs or yellows (Coliadinae (Swainson, 1827)). On this page they are ranked by similarity.
* ... The watercolor butterflies on this page are by Jacob Hübner of 1805, Eugen Johann Christoph Esper of 1829-1839 and John Curtis of 1823-1840. The affiliation can be read from the file name.
   
     

Appendix with designations:

{la} PIERIDAE (Duponchel, 1835):
{la} Pierinae (Swainson, 1820)
{la} Dismorphiinae (Schatz, 1887)
{la} Coliadinae (Swainson, 1827)
{de} PIERIDEN:
{de] ECHTE WEISSLINGE, SENFÖL-WEISSLINGE
{de] LEGUMINOSENWEISSLINGE
{de} GELBLINGE
{en} PIERID BUTTERFLIES:
{en} WHITES
{en} MIMIC SULPHURS
{en} SULPHURS, YELLOWS
{la} Colias alfacariensis (Ribbe, 1905), Colias australis (Verity, 1911) {de} Hufeisenklee-Gelbling, Südlicher Heufalter {en} Berger's Clouded Yellow
{es} La colias de Berger
{fr} Fluoré
{it} Coliade di Alfacar
{sk} Rumeni senožetnik
{sv} Sydlig ljusgul höfjäril
{la} Euchloe ausonia (Hübner, 1803), Weitere Namen (W. F. Kirby ,1871): Papilio Marchandae (Hübner, 1827-1841), Pontia Simplonia (Freyer, 1829), Papilio Belia (Esper, 1784), Papilio ausonia (Ochsenheimer, 1808), Euchloe Crameri (Butler, 1869) {de} Östlicher Gesprenkelter Weißling {en} Eastern Dappled White
{es} Euchloe ausonia
{fr} Marbré oriental
{it} Ausonia
{sk} Euchloe ausonia
{sv} Grönspräcklig kålfjäril
{la} Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758) {de} Großer Kohlweißling {en} Large White
{es} mariposa de la col, blanca de la col
{fr} Piéride du chou
{it} Cavolaia
{sk} Kapusov belin
{sv} Kålfjeril
{la} Pieris bryoniae (Hübner, 1806) {de} Bergweißling {en} Mountain Green-veined White
{es} Pieris bryoniae
{fr} Piéride de la bryone
{it} Pieride di montagna
{sk} Planinski belin
{sv} Pieris bryoniae
{la} Pontia callidice (Hübner, 1800),Weitere Namen (W. F. Kirby ,1871): Pieris Kalora (Moore, 1865), Pieris Chrysidice (Herrich-Schäffer, 1844) {de} Alpenweißling, Zackiggegitterter Falter {en} Peak White
{es} Pontia callidice
{fr} Piéride du vélar
{it} Callidice
{sk} Pontia callidice
{sv} Alpkålfjäril
{la} Antocharis cardamines (Linnaeus, 1758) {de} Aurorafalter {en} Orange Tip
{es} Aurora
{fr} Aurore
{it} Aurora
{sk} Zorika
{sv} Aurorafjäril
{la} Colias chrysotheme (Esper, 1781) {de} Orangegrüner Gelbling, Hellorangegrüner Heufalter {en} Lesser Clouded Yellow
{es} Colias chrysotheme
{fr} Orangé
{it} Colias chrysotheme
{sk} Colias chrysotheme
{sv} Ljusribbad höfjäril
{la} Euchloe crameri (Butler, 1869) {de} Westlicher Gesprenkelter Weißling {en} Western Dappled White
{es} Blanquiverdosa moteada
{fr} Piéride des biscutelles, Marbré de Cramer
{it} Eucloe di Kramer
{sk} Euchloe crameri
{sv} Allmän Grönspräcklig kålfjäril (crameri)
{la} Aporia crataegi (Linnaeus, 1758), weitere Namen (W. F. Kirby ,1871): Papilio Nigronervosus (Retzius, 1783) {de} Baumweißling, Heckenweißling {en} Black-veined White
{es} Blanca del majuelo
{fr} Piéride de l'aubépine, Gazé
{it} Piaride del biancospino
{sk} Glogova belinka
{sv} Hagtornsfjäril
{la} Colias croceus oder Colias crocea (Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785), C. edusa (Fabricius, 1787), weitere Namen (W. F. Kirby ,1871): Papilio Electru (Lewin, 1795), ... {de} Postillon, Postillion, Orangeroter Heufalter, Wander-Gelbling, Wandergelbling, Großes Posthörnchen, Gelbes Posthörnchen, Orangeroter Kleefalter, Achter {en} Clouded Yellow
{es} Colias croceus
{fr} Souci
{it} Crocea, Coliade sulfurea
{sk} Navadni senožetnik
{sv} Rödgul höfjäril
{la} Pontia edusa (Fabricius, 1777) {de} Resedafalter, Reseda-Weißling, Östlicher Weißling {en} Eastern Bath White
{es} Pontia edusa
{fr} Marbré vert oriental, Marbré de Fabricius, Marbré-de-vert, Piéride de réséda
{it} Edusa
{sk} Katančev selec
{sv} Pontia edusa
{la} Colias erate (Esper, 1805), weitere Namen (W. F. Kirby ,1871): Colias Neriene (Fischer, 1823-1824), C. Helictha (Lederer, 1853) {de} Steppen-Gelbling, Östlicher Gelbling {en} Eastern Pale Clouded Yellow
{es} Colias erate
{fr} Citrin
{it} Colias erate
{sk} Vzhodni senožetnik
{sv} Höggul höfjäril
{la} Pieris ergane (Geyer, 1828), weitere Namen (W. F. Kirby ,1871): Pontia Narcaea (Freyer, 1828) {de} Pieris ergane {en} Mountain Small White
{es} Blanca escada
{fr} Piéride de l'aethionema
{it} Ergane
{sk} Mali belin
{sv} Bergrovfjäril
{la} Colias hyale (Linnaeus, 1758) {de} Weißklee-Gelbling, Goldene Acht, Gelber Heufalter, Gemeiner Heufalter, Gemeiner Gelbling, Posthörnchen, Kleines Postörnchen {en} Pale Clouded Yellow
{es} Colias hyale
{fr} Soufré
{it} Coliade pallida
{sk} Bledi senožetnik
{sv} Ljusgul höfjäril
{la} Leptidea juvernica (Williams, 1946) {de} Unechter Tintenfleck-Weißling, Kryptischer Tintenfelck-Weißling, Kryptischer Leguminosen-Weißling, Kryptischer Senfweißling {en} Cryptic Wood White
{es} Leptidea juvernica
{fr} Piéride irlandaise
{it} Leptidea juvernica
{sk} Leptidea juvernica
{sv} Leptidea juvernica
{la} Pieris mannii (Mayer, 1851) {de} Karstweißling {en} Southern Small White
{es} Blanca catalana
{fr} Piéride de l'ibéride
{it} Pieride di Mann
{sk} Primorski belin
{sv} Sydlig rovfjäril
{la} Leptidea morsei (Fenton, 1882), L. morsei major (Grund, 1905) {de} Östlicher Tintenfleck-Weißling, Östlicher Senfweißling, Fentons Senfweißling {en} Fenton's Wood White
{es} Leptidea morsei
{fr} Piéride de la gesse
{it} eptidea morsei
{sk} Veliki frfotavček
{sv} Stor skogsvitvinge
{la} Colias myrmidone (Esper, 1781) {de} Regensburger Gelblilng, Orangeroter Heufalter, Myrmidonefalter {en} Danube Clouded Yellow
{es} Colias myrmidone
{fr} Safrané
{it} Colias myrmidone
{sk} Bakreni senožetnik
{sv} Gulröd höfjäril
{la} Pieris napi (Linnaeus, 1758), P. adalwinda (Fruhstorfer, 1909), P. arctica (Verity, 1911), P.canidiaformis (Drenowsky, 1910), P. dubiosa (Rober, 1907), P. flavescens (Wagner, 1903), P. meridionalis (Heyne, 1895) Weitere Namen (W. F. Kirby ,1871): Papilio napi (Esper, 1798-1803) {de} Grünaderweißling, Rapsweißling, Grünader-Weißling, Grünadriger Weißling, Hecken-Weißling {en} Green-veined White
{es} Blanca verdinervada
{fr} Piéride du navet
{it} Pieride del navone
{sk} Repičin belin
{sv} Rapsfjäril
{la} Colias palaeno (Linnaeus, 1761), weitere Namen (W. F. Kirby ,1871): Papilio Hyale (Hufnagel, 1766), Pap. Europome (Esper, 1778) {de} Hochmoor-Gelbling, Hochmoorgelbling, Hochmoor-Heufalter, Zitronengelber Heufalter {en} Moorland Clouded Yellow
{es} Colias palaeno
{fr} Solitaire
{it} Coliade del mirtillo
{sk} Colias palaeno
{sv} Svavelgul höfjäril
{la} Colias phicomone (Esper, 1780) {de} Alpen-Gelbling, Grünlicher Heufalter {en} Mountain Clouded Yellow
{es} Colias phicomone
{fr} Candide
{it} Coliade di montagna
{sk} Colias phicomone
{sv} Höfjäril
{la} Pieris rapae (Linnaeus, 1758) {de} Kleiner Kohlweißling, Rübenweißling {en} Small White
{es} Blanquita de la col, mariposa de la naba
{fr} Piéride de la rave, Petit blanc du chou
{it} Rapaiola
{sk} Repin belin
{sv} Rovfjäril
{la} Leptidea reali (Reissinger, 1989), L. lorkovicii (Real, 1988) {de} Reals Tintenfleck-Weißling, Reals Leguminosen-Weißling, Reals Senfweißling {en} Real's Wood White
{es} Leptidea reali
{fr} Piéride de Réal
{it} Leptidea di Real
{sk} Realo frfotavček
{sv} Leptidea reali
{la} Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus, 1758) {de} Zitronenfalter {en} Brimstone
{es} Limonera
{fr} Citron
{it} Cedronella
{sk} Citronček
{sv} Citronfjäril
{la} Euchloe simplonia (Freyer,1829) {de} Gesprenkelter Gebirgs-Weißling, Mattscheckiger Weißling, Mattfleckiger Weißling {en} Mountain Dappled White
{es} Euchloe simplonia
{fr} Piéride de la roquette
{it} Eucloe della biscutella
{sk} Euchloe simplonia
{sv} Allmän Grönspräcklig kålfjäril
{la} Leptidea sinapis (Linnaeus, 1758) {de} Echter Tintenfleck-Weißling, Echter Leguminosen-Weißling, Senfweißling, Tintenfleck-Weißling, Senffalter, Schmalflügel-Weißling {en} Wood White
{es} Blanca esbelta
{fr} Piéride de la moutarde, Piéride du lotier
{it} Leptidea della sinape
{sk} Navadni frfotavček
{sv} Skogsvitvinge
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